The Flood 缓解 Assistance (FMA) Program is the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) primary grant program for addressing flood risk to vulnerable National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) properties. 最近签署 Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (2021) (IIJA)拨款3美元.5 billion to the National Flood Insurance Fund for the FMA program. 从2022财政年度开始，在未来5年里，这笔资金将总计7亿美元. This is a significant investment on FEMA’s behalf to provide funding to reduce the number of properties currently at risk of flooding and reduce the number and value of future claims to the NFIP.
In addition to the funding, FEMA is challenged to consider if the dollars are truly reaching the most vulnerable communities and how the additional funding will ultimately reduce their risk. 联邦应急管理局的首要任务应该是精简和改进这个项目, continuing to add benefit for disadvantaged communities, as well as an enhanced focus on climate adaptive projects. If these priorities are addressed, 联邦应急管理局可能会看到一个更加公平的惠及弱势群体的联邦应急管理局计划, flood-prone communities nationwide.
由于 Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012, the primary source of funding for FMA has been NFIP premiums. 像这样, the primary goal of the FMA program has been to award projects with the greatest potential to maximize savings to the NFIP principally through 缓解 projects that protect or remove Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL) and 重复的损失(RL) properties from flood hazards. 联邦应急管理局使用SRL名单作为其资格信息的主要来源, despite this list being fraught with inconsistencies and 过时的信息.
重复的损失(RL): A property that has incurred flood related damage on two occasions, in which the cost of the repair, 平均, 相当于或超过每次洪水发生时建筑物市值的25%.
Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL): A property that has had four or more separate NFIP claims payments have been made with the amount of each claim exceeding $5,000 (including building and contents), and with the cumulative amount of claims payments exceeding $20,000; or two or more separate claim payments (building payments only) where the total of the payments exceeds the current value of the property.
据国土安全部、监察长办公室(OIG)报告，2020年，1美元.09 billion was allocated in FMA grants from 2013 to 2019. 自2013年以来，这一资金来源的需求已经超过了可用资金(图1). In 2020, FMA获得4.77亿美元 在应用程序中, more than double the amount allocated, which demonstrates an increased need for 缓解 dollars that were, 直到这个时候, not made available for flood ravaged communities. 另外, the report found that, on average, FMA projects took 2.7 years to complete from the date of application submission. For a household whose home is no longer habitable, 2.7年是不可接受的.
Figure 1 FMA Applications compared to Available Funding (2013-2020)
This figure was adapted from a DHS OIG Report (OIG-20-68, 2020), p. 5
Types of projects historically funded by FMA
The primary objective of the FMA program is to reduce or eliminate flood risk to SRL and RL properties by providing 缓解 funding opportunities to address these vulnerabilities. To further incentivize the 缓解 of these properties, the FMA program covers 100 percent of costs for the 缓解 of SRL properties and 90 percent of costs for the 缓解 of RL properties. Individual flood 缓解 measures—largely property 收购 and structure 海拔高度 are the majority of the projects funded under FMA. 2013年至2019年, the FMA program invested $328 million in the acquisition of real property and $428 million in the elevation of private structures. Other project types received substantially less funding (Figure 2).
Figure 2 FMA Federal Share by Project Type (2013-2019)
Where are FMA funds allocated?
状态s with the highest number of NFIP properties, and especially SRL and RL properties, receive the most FMA funding historically. 2013年至2019年, 德州, 路易斯安那州, and New Jersey received the most FMA funding (Figure 3), which is consistent with the location of SRL properties. One of the outliers is Mississippi, which has a high number of SRL properties, but reports no FMA funding in those years. 这给我们带来了FMA项目的一个挑战——为什么有些社区, 可论证的需要, underrepresented in the distribution of FMA grants?
Figure 3 FMA Federal Share Awarded by 状态 (2013-2019)
Figure 4 Total Number of SRL Properties by 状态 (as of March 2019)
Application Submission and Project Cost Effectiveness
首先，是 complexity of the grant application process and significant resources needed at the local government level to develop those applications discourage many communities from applying. These challenges contribute to either state or local decisions not to pursue FMA and their ability to be successful in obtaining funding.
联邦应急管理局的菲利普-马萨计划, as with the Building Resilient Infrastructure and Communities (BRIC) and Hazard 缓解 Grant Program (HMGP) grants, 要求提交一份非常全面和复杂的申请来参加全国竞赛, most of which is hard for communities to navigate on their own.
The FMA application also involves a Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) to evaluate if the risk reduction benefits of the project outweigh the costs to implement the project (e.g.,, buyout, elevate or otherwise mitigate the at-risk buildings). 联邦应急管理局已采取措施，通过修订的价值精简成本效益 预计算的好处. Pre-calculated benefits simplify the BCA for many individual flood 缓解 projects by providing a standard value for benefits rather than requiring the community to conduct a full BCA.
参与该计划的另一个挑战是个体业主的负担. 例如, the documentation burden can be significant since some of the households may not have NFIP documentation readily available. 进一步, 物业业主可能会面临令人望而却步的预付款或自掏腰包的成本——尤其是在高地项目上. This is acutely true in communities with socioeconomic disadvantages and in areas that have experienced repeated flood events. 高地工程通常需要业主进行物业调查, 设计方案, 海拔证书, 申请过程中必须提交的其他技术资料. In addition to documentation collection, as noted by the 2020年OIG报告, 业主往往要经过一段很长的等待期才能购买或减轻其房屋.
最终, property owners depend on the willingness and ability of state and local officials to participate in the FMA program. 在没有地方司法机关协助的情况下准备项目申请, 对这些有风险的财产和社区的缓解将继续是缓慢和不公平的.
Closing the gap: Getting funding to communities in need
With the bump in funding that FMA is receiving through the IIJA, 必要的资金是否会覆盖到那些被排除在外或在项目中代表性不足的社区? 缓解 across flood prone American communities is only going to become more urgent as the impacts of climate change worsen. 这些影响将以不成比例的方式影响弱势社区，所以我们今天的投资越多, 更好的. 缓解 节省了 $6 on average for every $1 spent on federal 缓解 grants.
With the Biden Administration’s Justice40 Initiative (行政命令14008)在美国，FMA 2021财年计划打算优先考虑有利于弱势社区的项目. The FMA Notice of Funding Opportunity for FY21 grants includes additional scoring points for Project Scoping and 社区 Flood 缓解 Projects that benefit disadvantaged communities (as measured by the 疾病控制和预防中心(CDC)社会脆弱性指数).
In addition to the changes from the Justice40 Initiative, the IJIA expanded the federal cost share to 90 percent for a property that 1) is located in a census tract with a CDC SVI score of not less than 0.5001 or 2) serves as a primary residence for individuals with a household income of not more than 100 percent of the applicable median income.
To utilize this new funding in the most equitable way, 几个关键领域可以得到改进，以进一步实现FMA计划的目标.
- FEMA can provide communities accurate NFIP and SRL data more readily.
- 状态s can improve their subapplicant outreach to reduce ineligible or non-competitive projects and improve the viability of FMA subapplications submitted.
- 联邦应急管理局、州和地方政府可以公平地选择项目的优先顺序.g., prioritizing primary residences over secondary or income properties).
Interested states and communities should prepare for this upcoming funding by beginning outreach to communities to understand need and level of interest in participation and to provide technical assistance if needed. 另外, states that have received FMA funding in the previous year can apply for FMA’s Technical Assistance program which provides funding to states to maintain a viable FMA program over time
与金砖四国计划和HMGP一样，FMA为项目范围活动提供资金. 单个洪灾缓解项目的资金上限为30万美元(e.g., 收购, 海拔高度, 缓解 reconstruction) and $900,000 for community flood 缓解 projects. For individual flood 缓解 projects, 一个社区可以申请项目范围来进行业主外展, identify priority project areas, develop a Benefit-Cost Analysis, assist homeowners with documentation collection, and develop a complete FMA application. 类似的战略适用于社区洪水缓解项目的项目范围.
As our climate continues to change, the importance of this funding cannot be overstated; and by ensuring all communities in need receive this funding, we are collectively buying down our risk to future disaster impacts. 此外, reducing or eliminating current barriers to entry into the program will help ensure funding reaches those who need it most, 当他们需要的时候.
凡妮莎卡斯蒂略 是一位在执行联邦应急管理局缓解计划方面有经验的缓解和规划顾问. 在加入哈格蒂, she was a 缓解 Specialist with the state of Colorado where she contributed her expertise to the successful implementation of more than $65 million in Hazard 缓解 Grant Program (HMGP) for Colorado’s largest disaster.
劳伦生气 是灾难恢复领域的高级管理助理和主题专家(SME). 劳伦在过去的11年里一直在准备、缓解和联邦应急管理局公共援助(PA)工作。. Her knowledge and experience of financial recovery has assisted communities nationwide to recover from and prevent future disasters.
阿米莉亚Muccio jdb电子免费(哈格蒂咨询)的减灾总监和灾难恢复领域的中小企业. With over 15 years of experience in public health, 防灾, 缓解, 和金融复苏, 阿米莉亚帮助客户在重大灾难后获得了50亿美元的联邦基金, 包括飓风桑迪, 加州野火, 哈维和飓风.
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